Most successful Brazilian telenovelas
However, in such an ethnically diverse country as Brazil, racial representation on these prime time television spectacles has always been incredibly poor. In recent years though, positive changes have been seen. According to recent census data, just over 50 percent of Brazilians declare themselves as being black or mixed-race. Black faces on national TV are still tragically rare. Moreover, when black actors do feature in these multi-million dollar novelas, they are almost always cast in subservient roles, such as maids, janitors and criminals.
The novela was subject to numerous complaints from Brazilian black movements for the terror and submissiveness of the abused servant, in an exchange which harked back to old master and slave relations. For the longest time, however, this was not reflected on television. Black characters on novelas were still exclusively working-class or impoverished, with servile jobs. Recently, this trend has begun to change, albeit gradually. Though filmed in a light-hearted, comedic manner, the scene managed to serve as a biting criticism of the reality of the ascending black middle-class struggling to be accepted.
The program has consistently received high audience figures and has now completed three seasons, being renewed for a fourth in Despite their particular issues, these two examples show how the ethnic makeup of Brazilian television, particularly its prime-time novelas, is beginning to change for the better, becoming gradually more and more representative of modern Brazilian society.
The Most Popular Brazilian Soap Operas of All Time
The final episode was the most watched TV program of the year and total earnings of over 1 billion USD show the outstanding adoration of telenovelas in Brazil. But is it possible that the impact goes much deeper than fashion trends? In a study from , Ferrara, Chong and Duryea investigated exactly this possibility. They found a link between reduced fertility rates number of live births a woman declares to have had and the coverage rate of the most widely known novelas.
To do this, they examined the average number of children per woman during a 40 year period and found significant correlation between the coverage spread of RedeGlobo, the monopolist provider of telenovelas in Brazil, and the decreasing fertility in those areas.
The authors argue that the depiction of smaller sized families plays an important role in changing the social norm of having many children. To change a social norm, it is crucial to understand the underlying reasoning and implement a corresponding policy accordingly. A reference network refers to friends, family, neighbours, role models or other people to whom you compare yourself and your actions.
However, it is no easy task to change such a norm. Many of them evolved over centuries and are deeply engrained in the local customs, but there are different theories as to how it might be possible to accelerate social change in a certain direction. Firstly, new laws concerning harmful practices e. Nonetheless, if the law does not feel like a gentle nudge but a forceful push, it might drive people in the opposite direction and cause them to identify themselves even more with the now forbidden practice.
This is often difficult for policy makers to anticipate and therefore a very delicate task. Secondly, deliberation through discussions can change internal frameworks. Often people assume that e. In a group discussion with different members of a community it can become obvious that in reality, the majority is opposed to child marriage and therefore the parties concerned might feel less social pressure.
Thirdly, economic incentives can induce a change of persisting social norms. However, in the past the distribution of monetary incentives sometimes backfired because it sets a price to an action or attitude and therefore transfers the act from a normative behaviour to a market transaction. Finally, social change can occur through media campaigns. For this to happen, media outlets such as soap operas have to rely on cultural schemata that people can identify with.
In the case of Brazilian telenovelas, the aspect of media attention towards a topic combined with trendsetters in the form of main characters of popular shows seems to be a likely candidate to ignite social change. The main characters of the novelas are often stereotypical women of the Brazilian society with only one significant difference: the number of their children. From to , the fertility rate of women aged 40 to 45 fell from 6. Interestingly, in the areas where Red Globo was introduced, the fertility of women younger than 25 was not at all affected, which suggests that the overall reduced fertility is not due to delayed first births but to more time between each child and earlier stopping of reproduction.
The closer the women were to the female lead of the novela in terms of age, the stronger the effect, equal to two years of additional education for the women or one additional nurse per 1, inhabitants. Does this prove the influence of TV on fertility? On one hand it can be argued that Brazilian novelas are a special case as TV in general and telenovelas especially are highly popular among all classes and age groups in Brazil.
What is more, imported novelas, e. It has to be seen if this approach can hold its promise of a cheap and simple-to-implement policy tool. Diagnosing norms. In: C. Bicchieri, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, p. Bicchieri, C. Tools for change. What is social norm? Ferrara, E. Soap Operas and Fertility: Evidence from Brazil. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 4 4 , p.
Brazil mega-church scores TV hit with biblical soaps
This was done to provide information about the different stages and news related to the research project, as well as to inform potential participants about the general aims of the study, and act as an open channel for communication. Hence, a link was included on this Facebook page to the website of the university I am affiliated with. This link included a description of my research group and its members. Therefore, facilitating easy access to the page, as they would already be logged in to Facebook.
The decision to use my real Facebook profile while participating in the groups or talking to users was done with the intention to transmit trust. Therefore, this enabled the creation of solid bonds with the users while involved in the group practices, as they would see the researcher as a real person. The Facebook page wood bridge design fundamental for establishing this contact and presenting the study.
Users were also encouraged to speak out in case they did not want their information to be used, something that happened with two participants.
It was explicitly stated to informants that their personal information would not be revealed. It was acknowledged during informal conversations with users, during the interviews, within the presentation of the questionnaire and in publications. Although I used the real name of the telenovela they were co-viewing in the research outputs presentations and publicationsI never used the actual names of the groups, nor provided any links to their posts.
Moreover, both groups underwent name changes several times, thus disabling the recognition of the studied groups, even more with the large flux of information that they had. Challenges of studying co-viewing in a connected context: the need to move between data collection and data analysis 38As a participant observer, it was crucial to co-view the show together with the group members.
By performing the activities with the users, it was possible to understand the ways in which these practices were carried out and their causes, which were usually related to the features of the interface and its constraints. For instance, the WhatsApp group had far fewer users than the Facebook groups, and yet the activity was much greater. This can be attributed to the WhatsApp interface. It is an instant messaging application that allows messages to be delivered and accessed quickly on the mobile phone.
Whereas on Facebook, it is necessary to be connected to this SNS to see the posts within the groups of interest. Additionally, while participating in co-viewing it was possible to engage in the discussed topics and the activities in the groups and then compare with the datasets. This comparissom of participant observation with mined datasets was essential, as it followed the understanding that co-viewing data as other digital data go beyond the idea of an archive.
These activities were seen as dynamic, real-time human practices that take place in digital spaces Kitchin, ; Pink et al. If I was not part of the groups and did not participate in the co-viewing activities, it would be almost impossible to read or have a deeper understanding of the content and data generated during pre-viewing, co-viewing, and post-viewing activities. Therefore, the process of studying co-viewing in connected platforms was based on moving between data collection and data analysis that proceeded in a constant process of evolution and adaptability.
It was necessary to do it every day because of the high volume of data that was produced. During co-viewing, these data appeared to be less than at other times, as I was seeing and participating in the activities happening almost synchronously. Nonetheless, when looking at the daily datasets it was actually more, as each post or comment represents a discrete row in the dataset in NVIVO, even when it only includes emoticons or single words.
For instance, during the first episode, the dataset contained nine hundred and forty-two rows including posts and comments from both Facebook groups.
Therefore, it required a constant process of selection and categorization of the relevant content. This selection was based on my experience of co-viewing and the notes taken during this practice. The solution found was to create an Excel spreadsheet with the most relevant activities. This relevance was based on the topics and on the engagement of the viewers. Usually, each saved interaction had at least ten comments or more. This decision decreased the amount of data I had to store, and changed the process of coding.
In the spreadsheet, I included my notes, links and saved the trace of the entire interaction among the users in one discrete row. They were coded categorized in two different ways. Second, by including relevant information in the nodes already created during the participant observation.
It was developed on Google Forms and made available during the last week of the airing of the telenovela. NVIVO was used for running queries and tests that were also applied to the data from participant observation and interviews, such as searching for the main used words to contrast with the existent categories, to see a word in a particular context, and so on.
After some weeks of airing, patterns started to emerge and nodes began to acquire a better shape, consequently decreasing the number of nodes during the process of analysis. After the end of the fieldwork, the coded data was further analyzed, and common properties and patterns of social practices were found among nodes.
This is because connected co-viewing is a practice that is alive and is always evolving. Connected co-viewing depends on the viewed genre, the co-viewers, the places where it occurs, and the technology and materiality available for carrying out this activity. It was found that the interfaces of the platforms Facebook and WhatsApp in which the research occurs are always evolving and have features that shape this experience. The methodological approach used in this study followed an inductive ethical procedure for doing participant observation and collecting data from SNS with the informed consent of users.
Therefore, this created a space for debating the importance of the ethical treatment of the subjects under study who use SNS and instant messaging applications for viewing purposes.
Furthermore, the need to address the research problem consciously is made explicit, because the way the data is treated might affect the daily lives of users, regarding issues such as data privacy, discussed social themes, illicit activities and so on. Also, this ethical decisionmaking formed part of the adaptive research process, as the object of study was under development. This confirms that conducting ethical research in the connected environment requires the researcher to make sensitive decisions during the entire process, as it is not possible to control the research setting.
If I had not followed these methodological guidelines and did not engage in the list of companies in pune with contact details xls practices, I would only have developed a superficial understanding of the connected co-viewing practices and the intertwined activities that occurred in these kinds of spaces, thus, potentially maintaining my initial preconceptions.
It must be emphasized that most of these practices could be studied only because they occurred within a space that was not established by the producers. Although official spaces can be convenient for researchers to delve into viewing habits, this study indicates that sometimes selecting unofficial spaces for observation can be fruitful for discovering practices that would never be seen in official ones.
Furthermore, Facebook and WhatsApp were revealed to be often used platforms for the follow-up of live TV activities. However, they also created opportunities for a better understanding of the context and the path-place array in which the study occurred. As explained, one of the constraints of this study was the technological restraints of the Facebook platform API that stopped working for mining closed group datasets. This required me to manually record the data for future analysis.
However, this limitation was also an opportunity for developing a deeper understanding of the digital-material setting in which the practices of connected co-viewing took place. It was possible to understand how Facebook, SNS and instant messaging applications are in a constant cycle of being updated. This affects the research procedures, which requires researchers to be flexible and continually review their research processes.
However, this was an opportunity to understand that ethical decision-making and informed consent when facing a vast volume of people and information, comes from the posture and decisions that the researcher takes according to the encountered context.
It depends on the position that the researcher assumes, by striving to protect participants from harm and not looking at the SNS content as only text, but as part and property of the human participants. The research approach and applied methods should be explored in similar and different contexts of viewing.
This TV Network Gets Half of Brazil to Tune In for Its News, Telenovelas and Soccer Every Day
For example, it would be interesting to research co-viewing in other television genres or within other types of viewing that are not marked by the broadcasting time. The original and significant contributions of this study will be further explored to better understand our expanding connected sociality.
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Nova Iorque: ACM. Estalella, A. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 8 3 The ethics of internet research. Hughes Ed. Londres: Sage. Flyvbjerg, B. Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12 2 How content and co-viewers elicit emotional discomfort in moviegoing experiences: where does the discomfort come from and how is it handled?
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25 6Virtual ethnography: modes, varieties, affordances.
Fielding, R. Blank Eds. Holt, J. Sanson Eds. Nova Iorque e Londres: Routledge. Kitchin, R. The data revolution. Kozinets, R. The field behind the screen: using netnography for marketing research in online communities. Journal of Marketing Research, 39 1 Netnography: doing ethnographic research online. Lopes, M. Matrizes 3 1 A case study on transmedia reception: fandom on facebook and social issues in the Brazilian telenovela Passione.
Matrizes, 8 1 The failure of online social network privacy settings. CUCS, Barcelona: Ediciones G. McDonald, D. Ethical decision making and internet research — version 2. Rearticulating audience engagement social media and television.
Understanding Web 2. Comments None If there is something Brazilians are absolutely crazy about besides samba, football, and beerit has to be soap operas or telenovelas. It does not matter your gender, age, or social status.
Everyone in Brazil has already been addicted to watching a few Brazilian soap operas at some point in their lives.
Brazilian celebrities in soap operas also reach fame much quicker than any other artist in Brazil. That is the power of telenovelas in Brazil. Some soap operas were so popular in Brazil that some of its best episodes even impacted social behaviors. For example, when the last episode of telenovela Avenida Brazil aired, Rio de Janeiro suffered a major impact in traffic.
Most people came home earlier to watch it and the usually-busy streets and avenues had impressive good traffic by then. Brazilian telenovelas are also famous throughout the world. If you already like Brazilian moviesyou might like Brazilian telenovelas as well. Check a few of the most popular Brazilian soap operas of all time: Anjo Mau This telenovela follows the life of an ambitious young woman unhappy with her life in her low-income neighborhood.
No one perceives her evil plan as she pretends to be a sweet and innocent girl. With a total of episodes, Anjo Mau aired between February and August ofstill in black and white. Over 20 countries bought the rights for this telenovela, including France, Nicaragua, and Russia. Avenida Brasil Among other plots, this Sorenson vrs youtube telenovela follows the story of a woman who had her life ruined as a child by her ambitious stepmother.
She returns as an adult under a new identity seeking revenge. Her stepmother is now in a relationship with a former football star, who also deals with issues in his family. Avenida Brasil is one of the most popular Brazilian soap operas in recent years.
Originally produced inthe rerun also reached amazing rating numbers for the network. Avenida Brazil quickly became a popular subject on social media and one of the favorite topics of conversation among groups of friends.
According to the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics, 80 million people have watched it.