Paragraph F In paragraph F, a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others resulted in the spread of European intensive farming methods to other countries. Ice cores and tree rings [in any order] In paragraph C, the writer explains that systematic weather observations only began a few centuries ago even more recently in India and Tropical Africa.
Questions 23 — 26 classify events Many Europeans started farming abroad. Key words: Europeans, farming abroad. The cutting down of trees began to affect the climate. This means that there is a relationship between smell and feelings. The experience relating to a smell can affect the feeling of one person towards it. This means that the importance of the human sense of smell is underestimated and not appreciated, especially in comparison with its importance among animals.
That means it is difficult for people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages. Therefore, it is necessary in the future to have further studies into smell. What is the writer doing in paragraph C? In paragraph C, the writer explains that though the human sense of smell is considered to be feeble and undeveloped, our noses are able to recognize thousands of smells, and to perceive odours which are present only in extremely small quantities.
What does the writer suggest about the study of smell in the atmosphere in paragraph E? Tests have shown that odours can help people recognize the….. Key words: tests, odours, recognize, husbands and wives. This means that the special smell in clothing worn by husbands or wives can be used to recognize their marriage partners. Certain linguistic groups may have difficulty describing smell because they lack the appropriate…. This means that it is difficult for people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages.
The sense of smell may involve response to… which do not smell, in addition to obvious odours. Odours regarded as unpleasant in certain…. This means that in some cultures, certain smells may be acceptable but in others they are unacceptable.
Weather: IELTS Speaking Part 1 Model Answer
Prior to the potato blight, one of the main concerns in Ireland was overpopulation. The bountiful potato crop, which contains almost all of the nutrients that a person needs for survival, was largely to blame for the population growth.
However, within five years of the failed crop of , the population of Ireland was reduced by a quarter. A number of factors contributed to the plummet of the Irish population, namely the Irish dependency on the potato crop, the British tenure system, and the inadequate relief efforts of the English.
B It is not known exactly how or when the potato was first introduced to Europe; however, the general assumption is that it arrived on a Spanish ship sometime in the s. For more than one hundred years, Europeans believed that potatoes belonged to a botanical family of a poisonous breed.
It was not until Marie Antoinette wore potato blossoms in her hair in the mid-eighteenth century that potatoes became a novelty.
By the late s, the dietary value of the potato had been discovered, and the monarchs of Europe ordered the vegetable to be widely planted. C By , the vast majority of the Irish population had become dependent on the potato as its primary staple. Families stored potatoes for the winter and even fed potatoes to their livestock.
Because of this dependency, the unexpected potato blight of devastated the Irish. Investigators at first suggested that the blight was caused by static energy, smoke from railroad trains, or vapors from underground volcanoes; however, the root cause was later discovered as an airborne fungus that traveled from Mexico.
Not only did the disease destroy the potato crops, it also infected all of the potatoes in storage at the time. Their families were dying from famine, but weakened farmers had retained little of their agricultural skills to harvest other crops. Those who did manage to grow things such as oats, wheat, and barley relied on earnings from these exported crops to keep their rented homes.
D While the potato blight generated mass starvation among the Irish, the people were held captive to their poverty by the British tenure system. Following the Napoleonic Wars of , the English had turned their focus to their colonial land holdings. British landowners realized that the best way to profit from these holdings was to extract the resources and exports and charge expensive rents and taxes for people to live on the land. Under the tenure system, Protestant landlords owned 95 percent of the Irish land, which was divided up into five-acre plots for the people to live and farm on.
As the population of Ireland grew, however, the plots were continuously subdivided into smaller parcels. Living conditions declined dramatically, and families were forced to move to less fertile land where almost nothing but the potato would grow.
E During this same period of colonization, the Penal Laws were also instituted as a means of weakening the Irish spirit. Under the Penal Laws, Irish peasants were denied basic human rights, such as the right to speak their own native language, seek certain kinds of employment, practice their faith, receive education, and own land. Despite the famine that was devastating Ireland, the landlords had little compassion or sympathy for tenants unable to pay their rent.
Approximately , Irish tenants were evicted by their landlords between and Many of these people also had their homes burned down and were put in jail for overdue rent.
F The majority of the British officials in the s adopted the laissez-faire philosophy, which supported a policy of nonintervention in the Irish plight. Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel was an exception. He showed compassion toward the Irish by making a move to repeal the Corn Laws, which had been put in place to protect British grain producers from the competition of foreign markets. For this hasty decision, Peel quickly lost the support of the British people and was forced to resign. Trevelyan believed that the Irish situation should be left to Providence.
Claiming that it would be dangerous to let the Irish become dependent on other countries, he even took steps to close food depots that were selling corn and to redirect shipments of com that were already on their way to Ireland.
G Many of the effects of the Irish potato famine are still evident today. Descendants of those who fled Ireland during the s are dispersed all over the world.
Some of the homes that were evacuated by absentee land-lords still sit abandoned in the Irish hills. A number of Irish descendants still carry animosity toward the British for not putting people before politics. The potato blight itself still plagues the Irish people during certain growing seasons when weather conditions are favorable for the fungus to thrive.
Questions The passage has seven paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraphs contain the following information? Write the correct letter in boxes on your Answer Sheet. B because railroad trains caused air pollution. C because potatoes were their main source of food. D because Charles Trevelyan took over relief efforts. E because they needed the profits to pay the rent.
H because his efforts to help the Irish were unpopular among the British. I because they believed that potatoes were poisonous. J because the British instituted penal laws. K because it was discovered that potatoes are full of nutrients. L because Marie Antoinette used potato blossoms as decoration. Between 40 and 60 A. His book, De materia medico, written in five volumes and translated into at least seven languages, was the primary reference source for physicians for over sixteen centuries.
The field of anesthesiology which was once nothing more than a list of medicinal plants and makeshift remedies, has grown into one of the most important fields in medicine. Many of the early pain relievers were based on myth and did little to relieve the suffering of an ill or injured person. The mandragora now known as the mandrake plant was one of the first plants to be used as an anesthetic. Due to the apparent screaming that the plant made as it was pulled from the ground, people in the Middle Ages believed that the person who removed the mandrake from the earth would either die or go insane.
This superstition may have resulted because the split root of the mandrake resembled the human form. In order to pull the root from the ground, the plant collector would loosen it and tie the stem to an animal.
It was believed that the safest time to uproot a mandrake was in the moonlight, and the best animal to use was a black dog. In his manual, Dioscorides suggested boiling the root with wine and having a man drink the potion to remove sensation before cutting his flesh or burning his skin. Opium and Indian hemp were later used to induce sleep before a painful procedure or to relieve the pain of an illness. Other remedies such as cocaine did more harm to the patient than good as people died from their addictions.
President Ulysses S. Grant became addicted to cocaine before he died of throat cancer in The modern field of anesthetics dates to the incident when nitrous oxide more commonly known as laughing gas was accidentally discovered. Two years later, Dr. William Morton created the first anesthetic machine. This apparatus was a simple glass globe containing an ether-soaked sponge. Morton considered ether a good alternative to nitrous oxide because the numbing effect lasted considerably longer.
His apparatus allowed the patient to inhale vapors whenever the pain became unbearable. The first use of anesthesia in the obstetric field occurred in Scotland by Dr. James Simpson. Instead of ether, which he considered irritating to the eyes, Simpson administered chloroform to reduce the pain of childbirth.
Simpson sprinkled chloroform on a handkerchief and allowed laboring women to inhale the fumes at their own discretion. In , Queen Victoria agreed to use chloroform during the birth of her eighth child. Soon the use of chloroform during childbirth was both acceptable and fashionable.
However, as chloroform became a more popular anesthetic, knowledge of its toxicity surfaced, and it was soon obsolete. After World War II, numerous developments were made in the field of anesthetics. Surgical procedures that had been unthinkable were being per-formed with little or no pain felt by the patient. Rather than physicians or nurses who administered pain relief as part of their profession, anesthesiologists became specialists in suppressing consciousness and alleviating pain.
Anesthesiologists today are classified as perioperative physicians, meaning they take care of a patient before, during, and after surgical procedures. It takes over eight years of schooling and four years of residency until an anesthesiologist is prepared to practice in the United States.
These experts are trained to administer three different types of anesthetics: general, local, and regional. General anesthetic is used to put a patient into a temporary state of unconsciousness. Local anesthetic is used only at the affected site and causes a loss of sensation. Regional anesthetic is used to block the sensation and possibly the movement of a larger portion of the body. The number of anesthesiologists in the United States has more than doubled since the s, as has the improvement and success of operative care.
In addition, complications from anesthesiology have declined dramatically. Over 40 million anesthetics are administered in the United States each year, with only 1 in , causing death. Questions Do the following statements agree with the information in Passage 3? FALSE if the statement contradicts the passage. Questions Match each fact about anesthesia with the type of anesthetic that it refers to.
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes on your Answer Sheet. Types of Anesthetic.
IELTS Reading Practice Test 50 with Answers
For fuel, early torches burned everything from gunpowder to olive oil.
( Update 2021) CAMBRIDGE IELTS 8 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS – Free Lesson
Some torches used a mixture of hexamine a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia and naphthalene the hydrogen- and carbon-based substance in mothballs with an igniting liquid. The first liquid fuels were introduced at the Munich Games. Torches since that time have carried liquid fuels — they are stored under pressure as a liquid but burn as a gas to produce a flame. Liquid fuel is safe for the runner and can be stored in a lightweight canister. The torch designed for the Atlanta Summer Olympics has an aluminum base that houses a small fuel tank.
As fuel rises through the handle, it is pushed through a brass valve with thousands of tiny openings. As the fuel squeezes through the small openings, it builds pressure. Once it makes it through the openings, the pressure drops, and the liquid fuel turns into gas for burning.
IELTS Reading Practice Test 8
The tiny holes maintain a high pressure in the fuel to keep the flame going through harsh conditions. F The torch was fueled by propylene, which produced a bright flame. But because propylene contains a high level of carbon, it also produced a lot of smoke — not a plus for the environment. Inthe creators of the Sydney Olympic torch came up with a more lightweight, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly design. To fuel their torch, they decided on a mixture of 35 percent propane the gas used to heat home stoves and barbecue grills and 65 percent butane cigarette lighter fuelwhich ignites a strong flame without making a lot of smoke.
It then burns as a gas under normal atmospheric pressure. The liquid fuel is stored in an aluminum canister located about halfway up the torch. If flows up to the top of the torch through a pipe. Before leaving the pipe, the liquid fuel is forced through a tiny hole. Once it moves through the hole, there is a pressure drop, causing the liquid to turn into gas for burning. The torch moves the liquid fuel at a consistent rate to the burner, so the flame always burns with the same intensity.
The torch can stay lit for about 15 minutes. G The engineers behind both the and torches adopted a burner system that utilized a double flame, helping them to stay lit even in erratic winds. The external flame burns slowly and at a lower temperature than the internal flame. This flame is big and bright orange, so it can be seen clearly, but it is unstable in winds.
BEST IELTS Academic Reading Test 35
The interior flame burns hotter, producing a blue flame that is small but very stable because its internal location protects it from the wind. It would act like a pilot light, able to relight the external flame should it go out. The glass stood for purity, winter, ice, and nature.
Also inside the glass was a geometric copper structure which helped hold the flame. The Olympic torch, as Olympic Committee requested, is carefully designed which takes years to design and build so that it is capable of withstanding all kinds of 27…………………. The torch used in the modern Olympics which is to hold the 28…………………… And the torch must then be copied and thousands are built as demanded by the thousands of runners who carry them through. Each runner has the opportunity to 29…………………… his torch at the completion of his journey of the relay for memorial and as for souvenirs.
Over time, the limestone which came into contact with rain water broke down and dissolved, leaving large hollow area to form underground. When the caves were first forming a few million years ago, the climate of the region of sub-tropical, meaning the level of solubility was even higher than it is today, so the erosion of the limestone occurred at a higher rate, too.
Corrosion is the chemical dissolution of rock. In the case of Eisriesenwelt, when rainwater came into contact with the limestone rock, lime or CaCo3, was being corroded. Only when carbon dioxide or co2 from the air and vegetation is introduced, is an aggressive acid, known as carbonic acid, formed. When this acid permeates the cracks in the limestone, the limestone dissolve. As it dissolves, wider cracks open in the stone allowing more water to pass through, which, in turn, causes greater erosion of the rock.
High level of precipitation, characteristic of the alpine region, resulted in greater volumes of water collecting and flowing through the hollow areas of the stone, and faster rates. The greater volume of water and the rate of flow combined eroded the caves further and led to an increasing amount of material being washed away.
This resulted in the formation of the spectacular geological features of the Alps, such as the long gorges, shafts and canyons to be found there. In short, the Eisrisenwelt caves were formed as a result of a combination of various factors: primarily lifting, corrosion and water erosion. The caves themselves are unremarkable, though, similar examples being relatively widespread in limestone areas around the world.
What set Eisriesenwelt apart are the unique ice formations that are present in a significant amount of the cave expense. Of the millions of known cave systems in the world, relatively few are genuine ice caves in which ice is present year-round.
That is what makes the Eisiesenwelt caves so special. In winter, the air temperature outside the cave might reach below minus 20 degree celsius for example. When it becomes colder than the air inside the cave, the air in the cave rises to escape and the cold air fills the space left behind. In summer, though, the temperature outside the cave is warmer than it is inside and the cold air in the cave, being heavier than the hot air outside, cannot escape and remains in a cold pocket, keeping the cave at a fairly constant temperature below freezing.
Glacier caves are easier to explain; simply the product of melt water carving a route for itself down from the mountain.
Rain may be causing a worrying amount of ice to melt in Greenland
Dynamic caves are a little different and the basic principle of dynamic ice cave is the chimney effect: the requirement for a cave to have at least two entrances, one at relatively low altitude and the other at a much higher altitude.
As a result of cold air streaming in from outside, the rock in the lower part of the cave then starts to radically cool. In summer, the outside temperature is much higher than the inside one, so the draft goes the other way, with warm air streaming in from the topmost entrance towards the lower levels. But, before this warm air can reach the lower level of cave, it has cooled considerably, so as a result, the lower levels maintain a fairly constant year-round temperature close to freezing.
Consequently, water that seeps into the lower part of the cave tends to freeze causing ice to build up, giving the spectacular ice formations for which the area has become known. The majority of caves around the world are found in coastal areas and were formed as a result of what substance acting on rock? What process is responsible for the creation of the large mountainous ridge which stretches across much of Europe, more commonly known as the Alps?
Large area of what, were enabled to form by the limestone rock present in parts of the Alps? Question Reading passage has seven sections, A-G Which section contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-G. Some sections may be used more than once; others not at all.