Emulsion paint production process pdf

Emulsion paint production process pdf


  • How to Produce Paint in Nigeria
  • Major Chemicals For Quality Paint Production
  • Paints and varnishes
  • The Use Of Local Pigments And Extenders For Formulation & Production Of Emulsion Paint
  • This post is intended to serve as guide for your do it yourself paint production Introduction Nigeria has a large population of people. These people build new buildings and erect new structures everyday. They also renovate them daily. Then, they need to make them look beautiful and attractive. To do this, they will need one important commodity which is called paint. Paint is demanded by people who build houses everyday. This has given rise to the need to produce Paint everyday.

    Some people produce paints while some people produce them. They make the product and supply it to building contractors, structural engineers, home makers, government, departments, agencies and organizations.

    Hence, there is constant demand and supply of paints which makes it a lucrative business. Paint is an important product required for pain ring and beautifying homes, offices and other structures. There are three categories of paints in Nigeria. They are satin, text-coat, and emulsion. The satin paint is also called nylon paint. You can choose any one of the three paints to beautify your house.

    If you want to know more about how to produce paint in Nigeria, read this post further. Profitability of Producing Paint in Nigeria Paint production business is a profitable one in Nigeria. You can make millions of naira from it monthly. In Nigeria, structures and buildings are constructed daily in all parts of Nigeria.

    This has necessitated the production of a product to beautify buildings and structures. Consequently, Paint has to be produced everyday. This will ensure that one will not run out of business. You will make profits everyday by selling paints to customers. For example, a litre bucket of paint goes for 25, If you produce litres of paint daily, you will make , as profit everyday.

    In a month, you will make 3,, This shows that producing paint in Nigeria is profitable. The paint production enterprise us not an exception. The amount of money to be invested depends on the scale of production. The scale of production could be small scale or large scale.

    Small Scale of Producing Paint To produce paint on a small scale, you need between 50, and , You only need some buckets and your hands to mix the raw materials.

    Medium Scale of Producing Paint You need a small factory, mixing tank, sand mill, paint filter machine to produce paint.

    You will also need a truck to delivery paints to your customers. You can hire 5 people to mix the paint and deliver it to the customers. You need between 2,,and 10,, to start a medium scale paint business. Large Scale of Producing Paint To produce paints on a large scale, you need heavy equipment and a plot of land to build the paint producing factory.

    The heavy equipment required include a sand mill, roller mill. The cost implication to produce paint commercially will not be less than 15,, They can be procured where paint making chemicals are sold in markets. Water is also required to mix the chemicals. Water is a free gift of nature. It is found everywhere. A, formalin, ammonia, hydrosol, marble dust,geniple, K14, Bama Cork, nitrosol, acrytext.

    Knowledge base Markets and applications Paints and varnishes The paints consist of a colouring substance pigment and a number of additives, such as binders, thinners, dispersing agents, preservatives and many others.

    Learn more about our products Download the information brochure containing details of our offer Paints are substances that have the task of creating protective or decorative coatings on the surface of various objects. They are usually in liquid form. Published: Paints and coatings The basic components of paints are: a binders and film-forming substances — these are ingredients that are found in all types of paints, varnishes and emulsions.

    They create a thin film-forming coating on the surface of the painted element and are designed to give the paint appropriate properties such as gloss, durability, adhesion, resistance to weather conditions, strength and flexibility.

    They are characterized by high volatility, thanks to which they evaporate easily when drying and do not become part of the paint. An additional task for thinners is to control flow properties and applications. They can also affect the stability of liquid paint.

    The main diluent for water-borne paints is, as the name suggests, water. Oil paints otherwise known as solvent usually contain combinations of various organic solvents, such as aromatic compounds toluene or other xylene derivatives , alcohols or ketones.

    The PCC Group has in its offer Dichloropropane , which can successfully replace organic solvents such as toluene, xylene and acetone. Dichloropropane is a highly effective solvent for resins, greases and fats, therefore it is used as a base component in the remover of varnish coatings drying at ambient temperature.

    Due to its chemical properties, it can also be successfully used in the production of paints and varnishes, as well as printing inks, c pigments — designed to give the paint the right colour. They appear in the form of granular solids. They can be divided into natural or synthetic pigments. The most popular natural pigments are various clays, silicas, calcium carbonate and talcs, whereas among synthetics there are calcined clays, barium sulphate so-called blanc fixe , precipitated calcium carbonate or pyrogenic silicas.

    A special type of pigment are fillers. These are granular solids, which are designed to increase the volume of paint, strengthen its structure, or reduce the cost of paint production, due to the fact that they are relatively cheap. Examples of widely used paint fillers are diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, barite and clay, d modifying additives — these are ingredients added in small quantities that modify the properties of paints. They can, among others, change the surface tension, improve flow properties and pigment stability, control foaming, prevent freezing.

    The PCC Group in its offer has a number of modifying additives that significantly improve the quality of the obtained coatings. They also reduce the viscosity of the formulation and provide very good stabilization of inorganic pigment concentrates. On the other hand, EXOdis PC , in addition to its dispersing properties, can also be used as a non-ionic wetting agent in the manufacture of paints. Due to the fact that EXOdis PC does not contain alkylphenols and volatile organic compounds VOC , it can be a component of modern and ecological paints and coatings.

    In addition, it is also used as a latex dispersing agent in dye formulations. Another very important group of additives for paints and coatings are emulsifiers. They help to create a permanent, uniform emulsion, which directly translates into easier application of paint on any surface. The PCC Group offers a wide range of emulsifiers that can act as additives in the production of paints, e. Particularly noteworthy are the POLIkols , which can be characterized by a wide range of application uses.

    Due to their structure, polyoxyethylene glycols have very good softening and solubilizing properties, low viscosity and freezing point as well as very good solubility in the aqueous environment. Emulsion products made with its use can be used in the paint and varnish industry. Paints — their types and application In general, paints can be divided depending on their properties and application: a emulsion paints, also known as dispersion paints.

    They are characterized by very good flexibility and adhesion to the substrate. Acrylic paints have a wide range of applications and can be used to cover, for example, wood, concrete, plastics, plasters and many other surfaces. Latex paints are extremely resistant to moisture and cleaning.

    Their advantage is a very easy application on various surfaces. The disadvantage is usually the high price. An example of the most modern latex paints are ceramic paints. They contain ceramic particles that form the so-called stain resistant coating. They are used mainly in utility rooms, and their greatest advantage is easy washability.

    Unfortunately, they also make it difficult for the walls to breathe due to the low vapor permeability. They are cheap, but not durable. In order to increase the durability, admixtures of other water-borne adhesives e. Lime paints are used for painting fresh concrete substrates, lime plasters and walls previously painted with lime paints. Currently, the use of these paints is very rare. This is due to their very low durability, dustiness and tendency to create cracks, c distempers — these are durable and breathable paints with excellent solubility in water.

    Plant or animal glues are their binder. Distempers are not very resistant to dirt, they cannot be washed and they absorb moisture from the environment. They are mainly suitable for painting lime and cement-lime plasters.

    Distempers are practically no longer used because they have been replaced by more modern paints, d silicate paints — their binder is potassium water glass.

    These paints are durable, non-flammable, resistant to moisture and have high mechanical resistance. They can be applied on brick, concrete and wooden substrates. When drying, they cure under the influence of CO2 contained in the air, e silicone paints — create a durable and weather-resistant coating.

    They are produced based on a silicone resin. They are suitable for painting concrete, wooden, brick and plaster substrates. These paints have the ability to self-clean, f epoxy paints — these are two-component paints, consisting of an epoxy resin and a hardener. Before applying, both components are mixed together.

    Epoxy paints show high resistance to mechanical damage and chemicals. They are used, for example, for painting concrete floors. For their production, additives based on phosphate esters from the Roflam series F5, B7, P can be used. These products provide high fire resistance to the materials to which they are added.

    Thanks to that, they can be used in passive fire protection systems, recommended in the protection of steel structural elements against the effects of hydrocarbon and jet fire. The products of the Roflam series can be used as components while creating formulations of intumescent paints, that are used on a large scale in public places e.

    In addition, Roflam products have also very wide usage in the petrochemical, energy, oil and gas industries, g chlorinated rubber-based paints — a binder for this type of paint is obtained by chlorination of the rubber with addition of softening agents. Chlorinated rubber-based paints formed in this way are resistant to water, acids and alkalis, but are very sensitive to all organic solvents except alcohol. They can be used as protective paints for gates and fences, h vinyl paints — they are resistant to water and various chemical compounds.

    Polyvinyl chloride is most often used as a binder. Vinyl paints are mainly used as coatings for materials made of galvanized steel, such as gutters and window sills, i polyurethane paints — are produced based on polyurethane resins.

    There are two types of these paints: one and two components. One-component paints are cured under the influence of moisture, while two-component paints require the addition of a hardener. Polyurethane paints create hard and abrasion-resistant coatings.

    They are used for painting wooden, metal and plastic surfaces. They are characterized by very high toxicity, j structural paints — this is a special type of paint that is applied to the surface with a thick layer, and then after drying it gives them a suitable pattern structure. Thanks to these types of paints, you are able to achieve a variety of decorative wall textures.

    Structural paints are suitable for covering concrete, wooden, gypsum plasterboards, plasters and many others, k spray and powder paints — they are used to obtain special visual effects on surfaces. They are applied to various surfaces using a gun. Thanks to these types of paints, it is possible to obtain coatings resistant to all kinds of cracks and splinters.

    It is a group of antioxidants with a structure based on organic phosphates. Products from the Rostabil series can also be used as effective thermal and processing stabilizers.

    Thanks to their unique properties, they provide colour control during machining and curing cycles. Varnishes — their types and description Paints known as varnishes contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent and are dried out as a result of its evaporation. They are widely used as materials for covering surfaces for decorative and protective purposes.

    Varnishes also have the ability to quickly cure in a very wide temperature range. Varnish is a type of finish that can create transparent or pigmented coatings, where the main raw material is a hard and linear polymer.

    The nature and properties of varnishes are strongly dependent on the type of their structure. The most popular solvents for the production of varnishes are usually white spirits or mineral turpentine. It is possible to distinguish many types of varnishes, which can be generally divided into two groups: solvent-based and water-based.

    Types of solvent-based varnishes Solvent-based varnishes form very hard coatings that show high resistance to mechanical damage. By creating a homogeneous structure, they also prevent the penetration of moisture. The most important component of this type of varnish is the solvent, which is usually characterized by an unpleasant and intense smell. Solvent-based varnishes can be divided into a number of subgroups: a solvent-based polyurethane varnishes — they are one of the best varnishes available on the market.

    There are one- and two-component varnishes. One-component polyurethane varnishes use the moisture contained in the air to harden. In contrast, the characteristic feature of varnishes based on two components are two stages of drying. During the first stage, the solvent evaporates, then the chemical drying takes place and the varnish is hardened.

    The advantages of polyurethane varnishes are their resistance to moisture, as well as high flexibility. Unfortunately, they are usually very toxic. They allow to obtain a wide range of finishes, from satin to gloss.

    Polyurethane varnishes, due to their abrasion resistance, are mainly used for varnishing floors in rooms with high intensity of movement, such as halls and lounges, b nitrocellulose lacquers — the main raw material for their production is nitrocellulose resin.

    They are mainly suitable for painting lime and cement-lime plasters. Distempers are practically no longer used because they have been replaced by more modern paints, d silicate paints — their binder is potassium water glass. These paints are durable, non-flammable, resistant to moisture and have high mechanical resistance. They can be applied on brick, concrete and wooden substrates.

    When drying, they cure under the influence of CO2 contained in the air, e silicone paints — create a durable and weather-resistant coating. They are produced based on a silicone resin.

    They are suitable for painting concrete, wooden, brick and plaster substrates. These paints have the ability to self-clean, f epoxy paints — these are two-component paints, consisting of an epoxy resin and a hardener. Before applying, both components are mixed together.

    Epoxy paints show high resistance to mechanical damage and chemicals. They are used, for example, for painting concrete floors. For their production, additives based on phosphate esters from the Roflam series F5, B7, P can be used.

    These products provide high fire resistance to the materials to which they are added. Thanks to that, they can be used in passive fire protection systems, recommended in the protection of steel structural elements against the effects of hydrocarbon and jet fire.

    How to Produce Paint in Nigeria

    The products of the Roflam series can be used as components while creating formulations of intumescent paints, that are used on a large scale in public places e. In addition, Roflam products have also very wide usage in the petrochemical, energy, oil and gas industries, g chlorinated rubber-based paints — a binder for this type of paint is obtained by chlorination of the rubber with addition of softening agents.

    Chlorinated rubber-based paints formed in this way are resistant to water, acids and alkalis, but are very sensitive to all organic solvents except alcohol.

    They can be used as protective paints for gates and fences, h vinyl paints — they are resistant to water and various chemical compounds. Polyvinyl chloride is most often used as a binder. Vinyl paints are mainly used as coatings for materials made of galvanized steel, such as gutters and window sills, i polyurethane paints — are produced based on polyurethane resins. There are two types of these paints: one and two components. One-component paints are cured under the influence of moisture, while two-component paints require the addition of a hardener.

    Polyurethane paints create hard and abrasion-resistant coatings. They are used for painting wooden, metal and plastic surfaces. They are characterized by very high toxicity, j structural paints — this is a special type of paint that is applied to the surface with a thick layer, and then after drying it gives them a suitable pattern structure.

    Thanks to these types of paints, you are able to achieve a variety of decorative wall textures. Structural paints are suitable for covering concrete, wooden, gypsum plasterboards, plasters and many others, k spray and powder paints — they are used to obtain special visual effects on surfaces.

    They are applied to various surfaces using a gun. Thanks to these types of paints, it is possible to obtain coatings resistant to all kinds of cracks and splinters. It is a group of antioxidants with a structure based on organic phosphates. Products from the Rostabil series can also be used as effective thermal and processing stabilizers. Thanks to their unique properties, they provide colour control during machining and curing cycles.

    Varnishes — their types and description Paints known as varnishes contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent and are dried out as a result of its evaporation. They are widely used as materials for covering surfaces for decorative and protective purposes. Varnishes also have the ability to quickly cure in a very wide temperature range.

    Varnish is a type of finish that can create transparent or pigmented coatings, where the main raw material is a hard and linear polymer. The nature and properties of varnishes are strongly dependent on the type of their structure. The most popular solvents for the production of varnishes are usually white spirits or mineral turpentine.

    It is possible to distinguish many types of varnishes, which can be generally divided into two groups: solvent-based and water-based. Types of solvent-based varnishes Solvent-based varnishes form very hard coatings that show high resistance to mechanical damage. By creating a homogeneous structure, they also prevent the penetration of moisture. The most important component of this type of varnish is the solvent, which is usually characterized by an unpleasant and intense smell.

    Solvent-based varnishes can be divided into a number of subgroups: a solvent-based polyurethane varnishes — they are one of the best varnishes available on the market. There are one- and two-component varnishes. One-component polyurethane varnishes use the moisture contained in the air to harden.

    Major Chemicals For Quality Paint Production

    In contrast, the characteristic feature of varnishes based on two components are two stages of drying. During the first stage, the solvent evaporates, then the chemical drying takes place and the varnish is hardened.

    The advantages of polyurethane varnishes are their resistance to moisture, as well as high flexibility. Unfortunately, they are usually very toxic. They allow to obtain a wide range of finishes, from satin to gloss. Polyurethane varnishes, due to their abrasion resistance, are mainly used for varnishing floors in rooms with high intensity of movement, such as halls and lounges, b nitrocellulose lacquers — the main raw material for their production is nitrocellulose resin.

    It is usually obtained from cotton, which is treated with sulfuric or nitric acid. The nitrocellulose varnishes also contain a number of other substances, such as polyester and alkyd resins, which improve their hardness and gloss.

    Plastifying additives are also used, most often phthalates, which increase resistance to light and temperature. Nitrocellulose varnishes are used as materials for painting furniture and various wooden elements. They are also used as a base layer for polyurethane varnishes, c oil-resin varnishes — raw materials used for their production are drying oils, natural or synthetic resins, thinners and usually a large number of additives modifying their appearance or properties.

    These varnishes are characterized by high resistance to atmospheric factors, in particular to UV radiation. Unfortunately, they also show poor hardness and abrasion resistance. They can be used for painting all wooden surfaces, from panelling to windows and doors. They can also be used as floor coatings in rooms with low traffic, d spirits varnishes — they have a very short drying time, which usually does not exceed 60 minutes.

    Unfortunately, they are not resistant to all impacts and atmospheric conditions. Raw materials for the production of spirits varnishes are solutions of natural or synthetic resins dissolved in ethyl alcohol.

    Spirit varnishes can be used to paint toys and various wooden elements in interiors. An example of a widely used varnish of this type is polish, which gives a relatively hard coating with a characteristic gloss.

    Water-based varnishes — types and applications In the case of waterborne varnish, the main diluent is water. The methyl ester is responsible for their flexibility and surfactants are substances that reduce their surface tension. The PCC Group offers a wide range of different surfactants that can be used in the paint and varnish industry. EXOdis PC30 can be used as a basic dispersing agent in water-soluble formulations. Due to its structure aqueous polyacrylic acidwater-based varnishes achieve excellent final stabilization.

    This product can also be used for the production of white decorative paint for interiors. Water-borne varnishes can be divided into three groups based on the type of adhesive used: a acrylic varnishes — these are cheap substances that create transparent coatings, without changing the colour of the wood.

    The viscosity was found to be 85 creps unit, which is fairly above the market standard emulsion paint creps unitand is also fairly below the first class standard paint about 95 creps unit ie above 6. This is attributed to the use of more quantities of binder and extenders in the production. Opacity and brush ability were observed to be relatively within standard.

    This must have beer as a result of the quality of pigment, extender, and thinner used in the production. This will enable the local manufacturers remain in business. The3 PH for the emulsion paint was satisfactory ie the PH is 8. The colour for the white paint is of standard while the colour for the deep pink paint sample was deviated slightly from that of the standard chart. This is due to the fact that there are variations in the colour of the pigments used for the production and some of them are of poor quality.

    The specific gravity of the emulsion paint is slightly higher than that of the standard. This is caused by high proportion of calcium carbonate and kaolin used for the production. The deformer at the other hand help to reduce the bubbles thus reduces the volume and increases the density specific gravity. Adhesion and fasteness to light of the samples were acceptable. This is as a result of PVA added to the paint. The drying time was observed to be within the standard dry time range within 24 hours.

    Although it dried within 24 hours, it supposed to dried in not more than 2hours, the delay in the time was caused by the atmospheric condition as a result of the research been carried out during the raining season. But the deep pink sample dried within 1hr. Some parameter such as rate of fungal growth, flexibility or bend test, optumrx training were not analysis due to the fact that the duration of the analysis is longer than the stipulated time for this work.

    The emulsion paint was formulated with suitable biocide at a level that does not render the film hazardous to health and will still satisfy the fungus resistance test specified for a standard paint.

    Paints and varnishes

    The economical analysis carried out for emulsion paint produced showed that the use of local raw material is more economical than the use of foreign imported material for the paint production. The overall analysis carried out showed that the use of local raw material in the paint production has a lot of advantages over its foreign counterpart, for which some of them are less cost of production, availability and nearness, no extra added cost such as import duty, and lastly, at a long run, it is going to motivation and encourage the local processors of the raw materials in the country which will at the same time improve the level of industrial and technological development in Nigeria.

    However, the major problems militating against the use of these local raw materials in the paint industry are inadequate exploitation and processing of these materials to the required ends.

    The imported titanium dioxide can be substituted with the locally processed one from mineral compounds that contained titanium such as limonite a black ferrous titanate. Titanium is also present in many plants and can be detected in the residue when these are ashed.

    Some other locally made materials can also substitute the imported pigment titanium dioxide; they include kaolin, cac03, treated lead, zinc oxide, antimony oxide, etc. The extenders of different kind, such as compounds of barium, calcium, aluminum and magnesium, can all be produced locally in the country.

    The local sourcing of these raw materials can only be achieved if the country will take the right step in the right direction since this project is so exorbitant for an individual.

    The emulsion paint samples produced showed good emulsion paint performance and can stand the test of time, in the sense that their opacity, blushability, covering power and performance against weather and other factors were excellent.

    The Use Of Local Pigments And Extenders For Formulation & Production Of Emulsion Paint

    Although the samples showed some deviation from the standard, they are still within the range of acceptability. Some of the standards stipulated for standard emulsion paint is shown in appendix 1. The economic run down of the production project showed that it is a feasible project that is worth embarking on by both the private individual and corporate bodies, who want to enjoy the benefits of harnessing and utilization of the abundant local raw materials in the country.

    The research engineers and scientist should collaborate with the raw materials Research and Development Council RMRDC on carrying out research on the raw material deposits in the country. From their analysis they should devised a better and modern heavy of processing these raw materials especially the pigments and extenders used in paint industries. They should also build more and well equipped chemical processing industries that will process these raw materials into the standard form required for production.

    This will help to discourage the local manufactures from their dependence on foreign raw materials. The local paint manufactures should imbibe the use and utilization of these locally sourced raw materials in paint production. The standard organization of Nigeria should ensure that manufactures incorporate well equipped labouratory in order to ensure that the paints produced conform with set standard which will withstand the tropical environment.

    They should also carry routine analysis on samples produced by these manufactures and defaulters should be guided very well. Moreso, manufactures should be advised to allow students on research work in their companies and with their product samples so that the aim of the project should be achieved.


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