Normalization example for online shopping

Normalization example for online shopping


  • Database Normalization: A Step-By-Step-Guide With Examples
  • Chapter 12 Normalization
  • Normalizing with Entity Relationship Diagramming
  • The Road to Professional Database Development: Database Normalization
  • What Is Data Normalization?
  • Online Store using E-Commerce and Database Design and Implementation
  • Database Normalization: A Step-By-Step-Guide With Examples

    Each row represents a relationship between a student and a subject. Student 1 is linked to subject 1. Student 1 is linked to subject 2. Student 2 is linked to subject 2. And so on. This has several advantages: It allows us to store many subjects for each student, and many students for each subject.

    It separates the data that describes the records subject name, student name, address, etc. It allows us to add and remove relationships easily. It allows us to add more information about the relationship.

    We could add an enrolment date, for example, to this table, to capture when a student enrolled in a subject. How can we see the student name and the name of the subjects they are enrolled in? One final thing I have seen added to these joining tables is a primary key of its own. An ID field that represents the record. This is an optional step — a primary key on a single new column works in a similar way to defining the primary key on the two ID columns. They can also represent a foreign key, which is why they are also italicised.

    An ERD of these tables looks like this: This database structure is in second normal form. We almost have a normalised database.

    What Is Third Normal Form? Third normal form is the final stage of the most common normalization process. The rule for this is: Fulfils the requirements of second normal form Has no transitive functional dependency What does this even mean? What is a transitive functional dependency? It means that every attribute that is not the primary key must depend on the primary key and the primary key only. This is a transitive functional dependency, and it should be removed.

    Column C should be in a separate table. We need to check if this is the case for any of our tables. Student student ID, course ID, student name, fees paid, date of birth, address Do any of the non-primary-key fields depend on something other than the primary key?

    No, none of them do. This is common with addresses, and you may have noticed this if you have filled out any forms for addresses online recently.

    How are they related? The ZIP code, or postal code, determines the city, state, and suburb. In this case, is South Boston, and is North Boston.

    I just made this up so this is probably inaccurate data. This falls into the pattern we mentioned earlier: A determines B which determines C. Student determines the address ZIP code which determines the suburb. So, how can we improve this? We can move the ZIP code to another table, along with everything it identifies, and link to it from the student table. I created a new column for the address code ID, because the ZIP code may refer to more than one suburb.

    Teacher teacher ID, teacher name, teacher address The teacher table also has the same issue as the student table when we look at the address. We can, and should use the same approach for storing address. The course name is dependent on the course ID. So, what does our database look like now?

    It satisfies a good relationship rules and will greatly improve your data structure from having no normalisation at all. There are a couple of steps after third normal form that are optional.

    Fourth Normal Form and Beyond Fourth normal form is the next step after third normal form. What does it mean? It needs to satisfy two conditions: Meet the criteria of third normal form. There are no non-trivial multivalued dependencies other than a candidate key. So, what does this mean? It means that there are other attributes in the table that are not dependent on the primary key, and can be moved to another table.

    Both the student and teacher table have these What if a student moves addresses? Do we update the address in this field? If we do, then we lose the old address. If an address is updated, is it because they moved? Or is it because there was an error in the old address? What if two students have the same street address. Are they actually at the same address? What if we update one and not the other?

    What if a teacher and a student are at the same address? What if we want to capture a student or a teacher having multiple addresses for example, postal and residential? There is a way we can resolve them and improve the quality of the data. This is a multivalued dependency. We can solve this by moving the address to a separate table.

    The address can then be linked to the teacher and student tables. Address address ID, street address, address code ID In this table, we have a primary key of address ID, and we have stored the street address here. The address code table stays the same. We need to link this to the student and teacher tables. How do we do this? Do we also want to capture the fact that a student or teacher can have multiple addresses?

    It may be a good idea to future proof the design. For this example, we will design it so there can be multiple addresses for a single student.

    There are a few enhancements you can make to this design, but it depends on your business rules: Combine the student and teacher tables into a person table, as they are both effectively people, but teachers teach a class and students take a class.

    Relate a course to a subject, so you can see which subjects are in a course Split the address into separate fields for unit number, street number, address line 1, address line 2, and so on.

    Split the student name and teacher name into first and last names to help with displaying data and sorting. I hope this explanation has helped you understand what the normal forms are and what normalization in DBMS is. Do you have any questions on this process? Share them in the section below. Want to improve your database modelling skills? Click here to get my Database Normalisation Checklist: a list of things to do as you normalise or design your database!

    Chapter 12 Normalization

    BCNF is rarely used. First Normal Form 1NF In the first normal form, only single values are permitted at the intersection of each row and column; hence, there are no repeating groups. To normalize a relation that contains a repeating group, remove the repeating group and form two new relations.

    The PK of the new relation is a combination of the PK of the original relation plus an attribute from the newly created relation for unique identification. A student can take many courses. Remove the repeating group. Identify the PK for your new table. After removing all the attributes related to the course and student, you are left with the student course table StudentCourse. The Student table Student is now in first normal form with the repeating group removed.

    The two new tables are shown below. When course information needs to be updated, we may have inconsistencies. To delete a student, we might also delete critical information about a course. The relation is automatically in 2NF if, and only if, the PK comprises a single attribute. If the relation has a composite PK, then each non-key attribute must be fully dependent on the entire PK and not on a subset of the PK i.

    When examining the Student Course table, we see that not all the attributes are fully dependent on the PK; specifically, all course information. The only attribute that is fully dependent is grade.

    Identify the new table that contains the course information. Identify the PK for the new table. The three new tables are shown below. Updating course information could lead to inconsistencies for instructor information. Deleting a course may also delete instructor information. Also all transitive dependencies must be removed; a non-key attribute may not be functionally dependent on another non-key attribute.

    Process for 3NF Eliminate all dependent attributes in transitive relationship s from each of the tables that have a transitive relationship. Create new table s with removed dependency. Check new table s as well as table s modified to make sure that each table has a determinant and that no table contains inappropriate dependencies. See the four new tables below.

    The first step is to remove repeating groups, as discussed above. Figure The abbreviations used in Figure Using FD as an abbreviation for full dependency is only used in Figure Boyce-Codd normal form is a special case of 3NF. A relation is in BCNF if, and only if, every determinant is a candidate key.

    Normalizing with Entity Relationship Diagramming

    Column C should be in a separate table. We need to check if this is the case for any of our tables. Student student ID, course ID, student name, fees paid, date of birth, address Do any of the non-primary-key fields depend on something other than the primary key? No, none of them do.

    The Road to Professional Database Development: Database Normalization

    This is common with addresses, and you may have noticed this if you have filled out any forms for addresses online recently. How are they related? The ZIP code, or postal code, determines the city, state, and suburb. In this case, is South Boston, and is North Boston. I just made this up so this is probably inaccurate data. This falls into the pattern we mentioned earlier: A determines B which determines C. Student determines the address ZIP code which determines the suburb.

    So, how can we improve this? We can move the ZIP code to another table, along with everything it identifies, and link to it from the student table. I created a new column for the address code ID, because the ZIP code may refer to more than one suburb. Teacher teacher ID, teacher name, teacher address The teacher table also has the same issue as the student table when we look at the address.

    What Is Data Normalization?

    We can, and should use the same approach for storing address. The course name is dependent on the course ID. So, what does our database look like now? It satisfies a good relationship rules and will greatly improve your data structure from having no normalisation at all. There are a couple of steps after third normal form that are optional.

    Fourth Normal Form and Beyond Fourth normal form is the next step after third normal form. What does it mean? It needs to satisfy two conditions: Meet the criteria of third normal form. There are no non-trivial multivalued dependencies other than a candidate key. So, what does this mean? It means that there are other attributes in the table that are not dependent on the primary key, and can be moved to another table.

    Normalized Product Data Provides Clear, Informative Product Attributes Blank or incomplete customer-facing attributes on an eCommerce store are another example of poor product data management that creates doubt and confusion in the minds of online shoppers. Once a consumer forms a negative opinion about your store, you have lost them forever.

    When all attributes available for a certain product type are populated with a correct value, it offers customers valuable insight into specific product features and technology. If an attribute value cannot be confirmed, the attribute will not appear on the page at all since blank attribute fields can confuse customers. While it is not possible to provide absolute encoder wiring in the online shopping experience, online resellers can enhance the shopping experience for potential customers through consistent product data that leads to increased conversions, brand loyalty and customer retention.

    Data inconsistency in terms of units of measurement, volume, color, brand, etc. VARStreet Inc is a complete business management solution that streamlines your entire VAR business Their eCommerce platform is easy to design with a huge library of pre-designed yet highly customizable eCommerce templates.

    The platform has many features and functionalities that make online selling a breeze. They have direct integrations with over 45 IT and office supply distributors with a collective product catalog of 7 million SKUs and real-time price and inventory updates straight from the distributor, updated automatically in the catalog. The biggest benefit that VARStreet provides in terms of product data management is that you get FREE rich content from popular rich content providers like EtilizeIceCat and rich content from many distributors.

    All the product data is normalized and structured in universal taxonomy, with precise attributes and mapped into correct categories and sub-categories. VARStreet also offers data feed as a separate service with normalized product data. Check it out here. This saves your employees a lot of time and effort in finding the right products when creating quotations for customers, or even at the point of sale.

    Productivity Gains for Your VAR Business Almost everyone in your business will require easy access to product data, particularly your sales teams. This ensures that every employee is informed and equipped to sell a product.

    You do not have to worry about maintaining an eCommerce product catalog too. The popularity of online shopping in Bangladesh is growing rapidly and most of the people showing their interest on online purchase so that the can shave their time and able to make their best choice.

    Though online shopping is time saving process, the business owner and buyer need to face some risk. It is become very difficult for business holder to manage the different types of product and the variety of customer.

    On the other hand the customer cant keep trust properly on the online shopping due to having chance to face some cheating situation. There have a strong solution of these problems to design a strong database for business man and a trustable website for buyer and seller. In this paper we develop an E-commerce module and designing and develop a strong flexible database considering the above problem. If the business man conducts their business through this module they have great chance to compete globally with global scale and they can save staff need for public facing premises.

    The Bangladeshi Government tried to increase the mobility to develop modern technology and for spreading the IT facilities over the nation invested a lot every year.

    For developing the IT market in Bangladesh, the Government provides numerous [1] facilities and spends lots of money for campaigning and connecting people with IT market. Bangladesh has a massive store market and the Bangladeshi people always facing communication time consume problem during go to store for buying some product and sometime they are unable to buy their desired goods.

    During occasion this problem becomes more dangerous. As a result it becomes keen desired to find out a appropriate solution to solve this problem in effective way. Among lots of process online shopping is very effective and efficient method to cope with this problem through which the buyer and seller can interact with each other without any interaction of intermediate party.

    This process is a real time method so it saves lots of time for buyer and seller both parties. Online shopping is an Internet system [2] through which a trader sells this goods and the buyer buy these product form these trader.

    WWW World Wide Web is must for merchants for sell their product as a result they can sell their product only those person who have internet connection. Customer can easily choose their product from website and make order through their device. Online store are decorated numerous types of product and shopper can purchase any- thing what they need for instance book, clothing, household goods, toys, electronics devices, software, ect.

    Online shopping is very malleable and user friendly method as a result numerous people favor to online shopping. If a person wants to buy a product from a brick-and-mortar store, need to drive and search a appropriate parking for parking his car and need to working until he is able to find his desired product. As soon as he selects his required item he needs to stand in a long line for payment. Online shopping is very convenience but everyone is not showing interest for purchase product from online shop.

    Several people show their interest to purchase product to reach the shop physically and enjoy the shopping experience. They feel better to touch the trader, trying to cloth and moved around the people.

    Online shopping does not give permission to conduct the product and they dont allow the buyer to reach the seller shop or house in the same day. This shopping technique provides you permission to browse [3] borderless possibilities and give chance to the trader to display as many products as he can. The product which you want to purchase is not distributed locally as a result you need to search it through internet. If one want to check its quality and compare with others, online shopping is very helpful for this task.

    During online business, the businessman faces lots of challenges. Numerous business man are available on the online market.

    Online Store using E-Commerce and Database Design and Implementation

    So a strong and healthy competition is available in this system. The man who is able to manage their product and customer according to various customer demands becomes a successful business man within very short time.

    For managing the variation of product and different tasteful customer, he needs to design a very powerful database and website.

    In this paper we successfully design and implement a database. We mainly discuss about the product selling efficiently and process and store the information accurately so that the owner of the shop can see the present position of his shop and can take immediate action accordingly.

    We mainly covered: 1. Purchase Management 3.


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