Nai acid or base

Nai acid or base


  • Leaving Groups Are Nucleophiles Acting In Reverse
  • 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
  • What is the formula of NaI?
  • Thanks, It's Dior
  • Leaving Groups Are Nucleophiles Acting In Reverse

    By Alexandra Marshall Updated Nov 15, am When Maria Grazia Chiuri was hired away from Valentino in to give Christian Dior a shot of relatability, there was much made of her being the first woman to lead the heritage Parisian couture house.

    It was good for the press release, but five years into her tenure, we're seeing what's become of it. Of course, Chiuri's plan all along was to sell. And clothing sales, often the lowest-performing category at a luxury house after perfume or makeup or accessories, have soared under her watch, eclipsing fragrance for the first time in Chiuri had a more ambitious agenda than the bottom line, though.

    She wanted to turn LVMH's leading brand behemoth into a feminist messaging machine. From that first spring show, led by boyish, buzz-shorn model Ruth Bell, Chiuri leaned into comfort over sex.

    The iconic Bar jacket lost its corsetry and loosened up. Models walk her runways in flat sandals, stompable boots, and kitten heels. Chiuri's accessories are usable and sporty as well as things of beauty with design bells and whistles. The Book Tote, a simple square shopper, is one of her favorite pieces, and this season it's entirely embroidered.

    For those who prefer to simply read in black-and-white, there is the T-shirt. In that initial collection, it was emblazoned with Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's mantra, "We Should All Be Feminists" — a manifesto that went immediately viral.

    To this day, it hasn't stopped circulating. Styling by Konca Aykan. Production by Octopix. Credit: Trisha Ward Chiuri had to fight for that shirt, an unusually direct statement for a high-fashion runway. We are a couture company! And I use a T-shirt because if you want to send a message, you can't write on top of a jacket — it's not believable. I had to convince him to do a small run and give the money to charity.

    We produced a tiny amount. Most of those T-shirts you see around the world now are fake! There have been collaborations with art legends like Judy Chicago 's spring couture , Claire Fontaine her neon signs blared anti-patriarchy slogans at the fall ready-to-wear show , and choreographer Sharon Eyal. Credit: Trisha Ward dior Natalia Vodianova. Credit: Trisha Ward For Cruise , pieces from which are photographed here, Chiuri hired illustrator Christiana Soulou to sketch sporting women into a delicate print.

    Athletics was a theme of the season, and the overall inspiration was Greece, both ancient and modern, as well as the first whisperings of what turned out to be temporary deconfinement.

    Toga dresses abounded with a nod to the radically reconstructive work of the feminist anthropologist Marija Gimbutas, author of The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe. If the suits have been disturbed by the faint odor of burning bras, they can't pretend Chiuri didn't warn them.

    What interests me is community work in fashion. Because if you're going to sell right-on slogans to women willing to pay hundreds of dollars for a T-shirt, supporting less fortunate makers in the process should be part of the deal.

    In turn, the atelier, in conjunction with its School of Craft, offers training to low-income women looking to rise to master artisan status, normally a man's position. Credit: Trisha Ward But there have been stumbles. In choosing diverse references for her collections, Chiuri has been criticized for appropriating different cultures. An ad featuring the very caucasian Jennifer Lawrence in a collection clearly inspired by Mexican design was pilloried on social media.

    In Chiuri responded by enlisting her daughter, Rachele Regini, who has degrees from Goldsmiths, University of London in art history and gender studies, to head up a cultural brain trust for Chiuri and her design team. They've done three sessions so far to get more savvy on the expectations of a broader customer base and the importance of sustainabilit y. It doesn't come as second nature, Chiuri admits. She nixes propositions from her team all the time that don't pass the real-world smell test and has hired slightly more realistic Italian size 40 fit models.

    I have to say, 'Please, this arm is not believable! It won't fit anybody! Credit: Trisha Ward Chiuri is intent on building the brand for women with something to say, and those women are responding in kind. It was a classic design, but in Maria Grazia's hands it became unique and innovative. I was floored by the intricate details and felt like a goddess in it.

    All clothing and accessories, Dior. Hair by Annesofie Begtrup. Makeup by Andreea Ali. Credit: Trisha Ward This has been the biggest payoff for Chiuri at a 9-to-8 job where weekends are frequently burned on planes visiting factories and far-flung ateliers. That when they wear our jacket, they feel well. That when they wear our shoes, they walk well.

    It's beauty too. I don't like that to be beautiful, you have to be uncomfortable. I think it's so ridiculous. This is the secret, very simple: I don't want to wear something that I feel does not empower me. Credit: Trisha Ward Critics have not always been kind about Chiuri's vision, though it wouldn't be the first time that fashion's professional opinionators have completely missed a juggernaut.

    Pragmatism is hard to get rhapsodic about in column inches, even if it's the animating spirit for Chiuri. She believes it was the same for the house's namesake, who favored corsets and petticoats. Dior, you would see he was very practical," Chiuri says. Also his color palette. It's gray, black, blue. Even studious nerdy girls like to swing.

    Chiuri herself works hard not to take the gig so dead seriously. But I come from Rome. I arrived here at 52, with a long career and big experience. And so, it's very interesting for me to look at the reference, to transform, to give it a completely new sense.

    I like fashion; it's a territory where you can play. It's like a game. All clothing and accessories, worn throughout, Dior. Photography by Trisha Ward. Close this dialog window.

    Reading Mode This story starts with an organic chemistry tutorial, when a student asked for clarification of the Finkelstein reaction.

    This is a simple SN2 type displacement of an alkyl chloride or bromide, using sodium iodide in acetone solution, and resulting in an alkyl iodide. What was the driving force for this reaction he asked?

    It seemed as if the relatively strong carbon-chlorine bond was being replaced with a rather weaker carbon-iodine bond. But its difficult to compare bond strengths of discrete covalent molecules with energies of ionic lattices. Was a simple explanation even possible? All is not as it seems however. Well, we have replaced one possible and probably complicated explanation based on bond strengths and ionic lattices by another based on the solubilities of an ionic material in a moderately polar solvent.

    But all we have done is ask a different question, which now becomes why is sodium iodide highly soluble in acetone, whereas sodium chloride and bromide are not? The answer to this is less easily found using Google! A good start would be the crystal structure of any complex formed between acetone and sodium iodide. Click for 3D. The formula shows three acetone molecules for each sodium iodide.

    The carbonyl oxygen has two lone pairs of electrons, and each of these is used to coordinate a different sodium cation. This allows each sodium to be coordinated by a total of six lone pairs, giving it octahedral coordination.

    This sets up what in fact is quite a rigid scaffold, with the unusual feature of an approximately triangular shaped channel running down the lattice two such are shown above. The size of this hole is determined by the methyl groups of the acetone, and it is into this cavity that the halide ion must fit. As it happens, the iodide anion is exactly the right size to produce a perfectly snug fit up against those methyl groups click on the image above to view this.

    If a chloride or bromide anion were to be fitted into the cavity, there would be empty space surrounding it. The cavity itself is too rigid to collapse around the halide anion to absorb this space.

    This means these halide anions are further away from the positively charged sodium than they would like to be such that they minimize their ionic lattice energies.

    Instead they avoid fraternizing with the acetone at all, and form a pure sodium chloride or sodium bromide lattice where the two oppositely charged ions CAN approach at optimal distances. The result is that sodium chloride crystallizes out of solution, and the Finkelstein reaction proceeds to completion! NaI in spacefill mode. But that is not quite the end of the story.

    If you view the acetone. NaI lattice sideways click on the diagram above to view this aspect , you will find that in fact there is still space in the scaffold after all! Each iodide anion has room above or below it, with space for exactly one more iodine atom to fit without having to change the shape of the scaffold. And indeed such a molecule has been reported [1] , [2] but it is an odd one! The stoichiometry is now acetone 3. NaI2, which implies that the iodide anion has been joined by an iodine atom.

    I2 - is called a radical anion, and as such has an unpaired electron. Just like two iodine atoms can couple their unpaired electrons to form a covalent bond, so can two I2 radical anions, forming I [or I3—. I—] or on to infinity as a linear iodine polymer, of formula n[I], with all the I…I distances equal at 3. Finally, it is worth noting that the same phenomenon occurs with the dimethylformamide. NaI complex.

    In this example, only the NaI and not the NaI2complex has been reported. References R. Howie, and J. Auffermann, R.

    Ramlau, H. Rosner, W. Schnelle, and R.

    Because if you're going to sell right-on slogans to women willing to pay hundreds of dollars for a T-shirt, supporting less fortunate makers in the process should be part of the deal. In turn, the atelier, in conjunction with its School of Craft, offers training to low-income women looking to rise to master artisan status, normally a man's position.

    Credit: Trisha Ward But there have been stumbles. In choosing diverse references for her collections, Chiuri has been criticized for appropriating different cultures. An ad featuring the very caucasian Jennifer Lawrence in a collection clearly inspired by Mexican design was pilloried on social media. In Chiuri responded by enlisting her daughter, Rachele Regini, who has degrees from Goldsmiths, University of London in art history and gender studies, to head up a cultural brain trust for Chiuri and her design team.

    They've done three sessions so far to get more savvy on the expectations of a broader customer base and the importance of sustainabilit y. It doesn't come as second nature, Chiuri admits. She nixes propositions from her team all the time that don't pass the real-world smell test and has hired slightly more realistic Italian size 40 fit models.

    I have to say, 'Please, this arm is not believable! It won't fit anybody! Credit: Trisha Ward Chiuri is intent on building the brand for women with something to say, and those women are responding in kind. It was a classic design, but in Maria Grazia's hands it became unique and innovative. I was floored by the intricate details and felt like a goddess in it.

    All clothing and accessories, Dior. Hair by Annesofie Begtrup. Makeup by Andreea Ali. Credit: Trisha Ward This has been the biggest payoff for Chiuri at a 9-to-8 job where weekends are frequently burned on planes visiting factories and far-flung ateliers.

    That when they wear our jacket, they feel well. That when they wear our shoes, they walk well. It's beauty too. I don't like that to be beautiful, you have to be uncomfortable. I think it's so ridiculous. This is the secret, very simple: I don't want to wear something that I feel does not empower me. Credit: Trisha Ward Critics have not always been kind about Chiuri's vision, though it wouldn't be the first time that fashion's professional opinionators have completely missed a juggernaut. Pragmatism is hard to get rhapsodic about in column inches, even if it's the animating spirit for Chiuri.

    She believes it was the same for the house's namesake, who favored corsets and petticoats. Dior, you would see he was very practical," Chiuri says. Also his color palette. It's gray, black, blue. Even studious nerdy girls like to swing.

    15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution

    Chiuri herself works hard not to take the gig so dead seriously. But I come from Rome. I arrived here at 52, with a long career and big experience. The common ion effect can also play a role in precipitation reactions.

    What is the formula of NaI?

    What additional information do we need to answer the following question: How is the equilibrium of solid silver bromide with a saturated solution of its ions affected when the temperature is raised? Write the ionic equation for dissolution and the solubility product Ksp expression for each of the following slightly soluble ionic compounds: a PbCl2 c Sr3 PO4 2 d SrSO4 Write the ionic equation for the dissolution and the Ksp expression for each of the following slightly soluble ionic compounds: a LaF3 c Ag2SO4 d Pb OH 2 The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per mL of water.

    Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.

    Thanks, It's Dior

    Show that it is not appropriate to neglect the changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions. Calculate the solubility of aluminum hydroxide, Al OH 3, in a solution buffered at pH Refer to Appendix J for solubility products for calcium salts. Determine which of the calcium salts listed is most soluble in moles per liter and which is most soluble in grams per liter.


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